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您当前位置:中国地质大学长城学院基础课教学部 >> 跨越四级 >> 浏览文章
英语四级翻译2
栏目名:跨越四级 时间:2015年11月06日 信息来源:本站原创 点击:

孔子(Confucius)是春秋时期(the Spring and Autumn Period)的大思想家、大教育家和儒

家学派(Confucianism)的创始人,是古代中国人心目中的圣人。孔子的言论和生平活动记

录在由他的弟子或再传弟子编成的《论语》(The Analects)一书中。《论语》是中国古代

文化的经典著作。在孔子之后几千年的中国历史上,没有哪一位思想家、文学家和政治家不

受《论语》的影响。不研究《论语》,就不能真正把握中国几千年的传统文化。 

As a great thinker, educator and founder of Confucianism during the Spring and Autumn Period, 

Confucius is a sage to the ancient Chinese people. His words and life story were recorded by his 

disciples and their students in The Analects. As an enduring classic of Chinese culture, The 

Analects has influenced all thinkers, writers and politicians in the thousand years’ Chinese history 

after Confucius. No scholar could truly understand this long-standing culture or the inner world of 

the ancient Chinese without this book. 

 

大约在两千多年前,中国就出现了蜡染(wax printing)。在中国服饰中,蜡染是一种流传

时间长、流行范围大、使用领域广的服装工艺。蜡染是在布匹着色的过程中,以蜂蜡(beeswax)

作为防止染色的材料。蜂蜡干了之后,会产生一些裂纹,这些裂纹在染色过程中渗透进靛蓝

色,于是形成了如冰花式样的美妙纹理。这样自然天成的纹理可以说是蜡染的灵魂所在。 

Wax printing appeared in China about 2,000 years ago. Wax printing has long been a widespread 

technique used in the history of Chinese fashion. During the dyeing process, beeswax is applied to 

prevent some parts of the cloth form being dyed. When the beeswax dries, it develops cracks, 

which absorb indigo in the process of dyeing, thus forming the beautiful natural lines resembling 

breaking ice. These naturally formed lines represent the beauty and soul of wax printing. 

 

景泰蓝(cloisonné)是驰名中外的传统工艺,它集青铜艺术、瓷器和雕刻诸种工艺制作技巧

于一身,是一门地道的北京绝活。它是收藏家收藏的佳品,也是人们居家使用的精美物品。

这项工艺始创于明代景泰年间,初创时的颜色主要是蓝色,故得名“景泰蓝”。到了成化年

间,景泰蓝技术进一步成熟,这个时期的作品沉稳凝重又透明灵动,而且铜胎也极为讲究。 

Cloisonné is a traditional art widely known in and outside China. It is a kind of superb local 

expertise form of Beijing, which combines the skills of bronze art, porcelain, carving and other 

types of folk arts. It is deemed valuable in the eyes of collectors, as well as refined ornaments for 

daily use. The making of cloisonné first appeared during the Jingtai reign of the Ming Dynasty, 

with the main colour used being blue, hence the name “Jingtai Blue” as it became known later on. 

By the time of the Chenghua reign, the techniques for making cloisonné were further developed, 

with products of this period looking heavy and dignified yet not lacking in eloquence or vividness. 

Moreover, its cast was always made of choice copper. 

 

西塘在浙江嘉兴,位于上海和杭州之间。这个占地规模并不大的古镇有着悠久的历史,它初

建于春秋时期(the Spring and Autumn Period),位于吴国和越国的交界处。西塘的大致规

模在宋代之前就已经形成,今所见西塘著名的桥梁望仙桥(Wangxian Bridge)就是宋代的

遗迹。在明清时期,西塘既是远近闻名的鱼米之乡,又是著名的丝绸制造之地,还以制陶业

(ceramics)而享誉全国。 Xitang is located in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, between Shanghai and Hangzhou. Though small 

in size, this ancient town boasts a long history. It was first built during the Spring and Autumn 

Period, at the border between the states of Wu and Yue. The present layout had already taken 

shape before the Song Dynasty, and the famous Wangxian Bridge in Xitang is a legacy of the 

Song. By the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Xitang had become a well-known trade centre for farm 

products, silks and ceramics, all produced in the surrounding areas and famous throughout the 

country. 

 

秧歌舞(Yangko dance)是中国汉族的一种传统民间舞蹈,通常在北方省份表演。秧歌舞者

通常穿上明亮多彩的表演服装,他们的表演动作迅速有力。在农历春节、元宵节等节日期间,

人们一旦听到锣鼓声,不管外面天气有多冷,他们都会蜂拥到街上观看秧歌舞表演。近年来,

中国东北某些城市的老年人自发组织了秧歌队,队员常年通过跳舞来保持健康,同时他们也

乐在其中。 

The Yangko dance is a traditional folk dance of the Han Chinese, commonly performed in the 

northern provinces. Yangko dancers usually wear bright and colorful costumes, and their 

movements are vigorous and quick. During holidays, such as the lunar New Year and the Lantern 

Festival, as soon as people hear the sound of drums and gongs they swarm into the streets to watch 

Yangko dance performances, no matter how cold it is outside. In recent years, elderly people in 

some cities in Northeast China have been organizing themselves into Yangko teams, with the 

dancers enjoying themselves while keeping fit all year round. 

 

中国的青铜器时代(Bronze Age)从夏开始,经历商、西周到春秋时期(the Spring and Autumn 

Period),前后持续了一千五百多年的时间。大量出土的青铜器物表明,中国创造了灿烂的

青铜文明。这些青铜器物不仅有丰富的政治和宗教内涵,而且还具有很高的艺术价值。今藏

于中国历史博物馆的大盂鼎(the Great Ding for Yu)是中国青铜器时代的代表性作品之一。

它是西周康王(King Kang)时期的作品,距今大约有三千多年。 

The Bronze Age in China lasted more than 1,500 years, from the Xia through the Shang and 

Western Zhou Dynasties, to the Spring and Autumn Period. Large numbers of unearthed artifacts 

indicate a high level of ancient bronze civilization in the country. They feature rich political and 

religious themes, and are of high artistic value. A representative example is the Great Ding for Yu, 

which is now preserved in the Museum of Chinese History. It was cast about 3,000 years ago 

during the reign of King Kang of Western Zhou Dynasty. 

 

1911年,中国爆发了历史上的第一次资产阶级革命——辛亥革命(the Revolution of 1911),

它推翻了中国封建社会的最后一个朝代——清朝,废除了中国延续了2000多年的封建帝制,

建立了中国的第一个民主共和国——中华民国。民国政府成立以后,要求全国人民都剪掉头

上的辫子(queues),选择自己喜欢的发型。至此,在中国延续了280多年的辫子法令终于

被解除。 

In 1911, the first bourgeois revolution in Chinese history — the Revolution of 1911 broke out. 

The last dynasty of the Chinese feudal society, Qing Dynasty, was over-thrown and the monarch 

system that had a history of more than 2,000 years was abolished. The Republic of China, the first democratic republic in China, was founded in 1912. After its foundation, the government of 

Republic of China had required the citizens to cut off their queues and make the haircut they liked. 

Since then, the wearing-queue order that had lasted for more than 280 years in China has been 

abolished. 

 

出现在中国五代时期的妇女缠足(foot-binding),虽然最初是宫廷舞女为了方便跳舞而采用

的一种行为,但由于有人认为脚裹起来更好看,所有很多人就开始效仿起来。到了宋代,封

建社会的纲常思想非常严重,受到男尊女卑的封建礼教的影响,女子裹脚的风气被传承下来,

并逐渐成为一种习俗。为了与妇女的小脚相适应,宋代还出现了专门为裹足妇女制作的弓鞋

(gongxie)。 

The practice of foot-binding for women appeared in the Five Dynasties, but in the beginning, it 

was only adopted by the court dancers for convenience while dancing. Since people thought the 

foot-binding made women’s feet look more beautiful, many females rushed to follow suit. By the 

Song Dynasty, due to the importance of feudal ethical thoughts and influence of the feudal male 

superiority conception, the practice of foot-binding was inherited and became a custom. In the 

Song Dynasty, to meet the needs of women’s small feet, a kind of specially designed shoes 

gongxie was made. 

 

据中国古代史书记载,治水有功的大禹通过禅让制接替舜成为部落联盟首领。但大禹死后,

他的儿子夏启却破坏禅让的传统,自立为国王,建立了中国历史上第一个奴隶制国家——夏。

从此,王位实行世袭制度,中国社会从此步入阶级社会。夏代处在中国社会从原始社会向奴

隶社会过渡的时期,社会生活的各个方面依然保存着原始社会的种种痕迹。 

According to the Chinese ancient documents, the legendary leader Shun abdicated and handed 

over his leadership to Da Yu who had made great contribution to controlling the flood of the 

Yellow River of China. When Da Yu died, his son Xia Qi breached the tradition of demise system 

and set himself as the king. Xia, the first slavery nation in Chinese history, was founded. Since 

then, the hereditary system had been practiced. Thus, China stepped into a class society. The Xia 

Dynasty was a transition from primitive society to slave society. At that time, all aspects of social 

life still reserved traces of primitive society. 

 

10 

北京烤鸭是自封建帝王时代就在北京城流行的著名菜肴,如今它被认为是中国的一道国菜。

这道菜以它薄而脆的酥皮,以及厨师们在客人面前片鸭子的真实情形而著称。专门用于制作

烤鸭的鸭子在养殖65 天后就被屠宰了,鸭子在烤制前要先用调料腌制(season),然后才送

进焖炉或者挂炉。鸭肉通常配上葱(scallion)、黄瓜和甜面酱,用薄饼卷着食用。 

Peking duck is a famous duck dish that has been popular since the imperial era in Beijing, and is 

now considered a national dish of China. The dish is prized for the thin, crisp skin with authentic 

vision of the dish serving sliced in front of the diners by the cook. Ducks bred specially for the 

dish are slaughtered after 65 days and seasoned before being roasted in a closed or hung oven. The 

meat is usually eaten with pancakes, scallion, cucumbers and sweet bean sauce. 

 

 11 

秦始皇是中国历史上一位很有作为的皇帝,他生前动用了大量人力、物力为自己修造陵墓。

秦陵兵马俑(Terracotta Warriors and Horses)就是为陪葬这位皇帝而制作的陶兵和陶马。秦

始皇陵兵马俑被发现于1974年。三个兵马俑坑(terracotta figurines pits)占地约20,000多平

方米,8,000 多个与真人真马一般大小的陶俑陶马,排列成整齐的方阵,再现了秦始皇统一

中国时兵强马壮的雄伟军阵。秦始皇陵兵马俑被称作世界第八大奇迹。 

The first emperor of the Qin Dynasty, known as Qing Shi Huang, made great achievements in 

Chinese history. While still alive, he mobilized huge manpower and used a great deal of materials 

to build his tomb. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses were made as burial objects to accompany 

the emperor in the after world. They were first discovered in 1974. Archaeologists had unearthed 

some 8,000 lifelike soldiers and horses from three terracotta figurines pits occupying about 20,000 

square metres. Standing in formation, they indicate the powerful array of troops of Qin Shi Huang 

when he unified China. They are regarded as the eighth wonder of the world. 

 

12 

筷子是广泛适用于东亚各国的传统餐具。筷子的历史起源于中国古代,最早可以追溯到商代。

筷子通常由竹子、塑料、木材或不锈钢制成。第一双筷子可能用于烹饪,拨火而不是作为饮

食器具。直到汉代,筷子才开始用作餐具。直到明代,筷子才开始被普遍使用于上菜或者吃

饭。然后它们被取名“筷子”,并拥有了今天的形状。 

Chopsticks are used as the traditional eating utensils of various East Asian countries. Chopsticks 

originated in ancient China and dates back to as early as the Shang Dynasty. They are commonly 

made of bamboo, plastic, wood or stainless steel. The first chopsticks were probably used for 

cooking, stirring the fire and not as eating utensils. Chopsticks began to be used as eating utensils 

during the Han Dynasty. It was not until the Ming Dynasty that chopsticks were widely used for 

both serving and eating. They then acquired the name kuaizi and the present shape. 

 

13 

公元960年,宋朝建立,后统一了中国大部分地区。宋朝的统治者建立了有效的中央集权制;

广泛任用民间的学术文人;地方的军事官员及其党羽都被中央任命的官员所替代。宋朝在城

市发展方面是非常显著的,这不单指其在管理上的职能,而且还包括其作为贸易、工业和海

上贸易的中心的职能。在文化上,宋朝发展了历史文献、绘画、书法及坚硬光滑的瓷器等。 

In 960, Song Dynasty was founded, and later it reunified most of China. The rulers of the Song 

Dynasty built an effective centralized bureaucracy staffed with civilian scholar-officials. Regional 

military governors and their supporters were replaced by centrally appointed officials. The Song 

Dynasty is notable for the development of cities not only for administrative purposes but also as 

centers of trade, industry and maritime commerce. Culturally, the Song refined historical writings, 

painting, calligraphy and hard-glazed porcelain, etc. 

 

14 

中国科举制度(Chinese Imperial Examination System)是指中国古代官僚机构选拔行政官员

的考试制度。古代的中国人要想成为一位官员首先必须通过多种考试。科举考试的历史可以

追溯到隋朝,在唐朝得到进一步巩固和完善,在清朝走到了尽头。科举制度在中国已经存在

了约 1300 年。它对中国古代的社会结构和政治体制有深刻的影响。即使是现代选拔公务员

的考试制度也是间接地从科举制度演变而来的。 Chinese Imperial Examination System refers to an examination system of selecting the 

administrative officials for the ancient Chinese bureaucracy. Ancient Chinese who wanted to be an 

official had to pass multiple of examinations first. Its history dates back to the Sui Dynasty. 

During the Tang Dynasty, the system had been further consolidated and perfected. The system 

came to an end during the Qing Dynasty. The Imperial Examination System has existed for about 

1,300 years in China. It exerts deep influence on social structure and political system in ancient 

China. Even the modern examination system for selecting civil service staff also indirectly 

evolved from the imperial one. 

 

15 

唐代文化是中国文化的一个高峰。尤其是古典诗歌到唐代发展到全盛时期。在唐代300余年

的历史中,产生的流传于后世的诗歌就有48,900多首。如此丰富的作品也使2,300 多位诗人

在历史上留下了他们的名字。唐诗在创作方法上,现实主义与浪漫主义并举。唐代最著名的

诗人是李白和杜甫,他们都是具有世界声誉的诗人,后人将他们合称为“李杜”。 

The Tang Dynasty witnessed a peak in Chinese culture. Especially, ancient poetry flourished in 

the Tang Dynasty. In more than 300 years of the Tang Dynasty, some 48,900 poems were handed 

down and remain widely known today. So many works also made more than 2,300 poets famous 

in history. As far as the writing technique is concerned, the Tang poetry combined realism and 

romanticism. The best-known poets of the Tang Dynasty were Li Bai and Du Fu, who are very 

prestigious in the whole world and people of later generations called both of them as “Li Du” 

collaboratively. 

 

16 

江苏菜,又叫淮阳菜,流行于长江下流区域,以水产作为主要原料,注重原料的鲜味。其雕

刻技术十分珍贵,其中瓜雕(melon carving)尤其著名。烹饪技术包括炖、烤、焙、煨(simmering)

等。江苏菜的特色是淡、鲜、甜、雅。江苏菜系以其精选的原料,精细的准备,不辣不温的

口感而出名。因为江苏气候变化很大,江苏菜系在一年之中也有变化。味道强而不重,淡而

不温。 

Jiangsu Cuisine, also called Huaiyang Cuisine, is popular in the lower reach region of the Yangtze 

River. Aquatics as the main ingredients, it stresses the freshness of materials. Its carving 

techniques are delicate, of which the melon carving technique is especially well-known. Cooking 

techniques consist of stewing, roasting, baking and simmering, etc. The flavor of Huaiyang 

Cuisine is light, fresh and sweet and with delicate elegance. Jiangsu Cuisine is well-known for its 

careful selection of ingredients, its meticulous preparation, and its “not-too-spicy, not-too-bland” 

taste. Since the climate varies considerably in Jiangsu, the cuisine also varies throughout the year. 

The flavor is strong but not too heavy; light but not too bland. 

 

17 

王安石,北宋宰相、政治家、文学家、江西临川人。1042 年,王安石考中进士,踏上了仕

途,从此积极投身于改革大业。他曾给宋仁宗写了一封万字的谏书(remonstrance),主张

朝廷全面改革法度,却没有得到重视。直到宋神宗时,王安石才得以有计划制定新的法度,

大刀阔斧地展开以富国强兵为目的的变法运动。这就是中国历史上著名的“王安石变法”。 

 Born in Linchuan, Jiangxi province, Wang Anshi was a statesman, poet and prose writer in the 

Song Dynasty. In 1042, Wang Anshi outstood others in the feudal exam and became a Jinshi, 

marking his first step in his political career and the beginning of his commitment to the reform. He 

once wrote a remonstrance of ten thousand characters to Emperor Renzong, advocating an all-out 

reform of the feudal laws and systems. The letter, however, was neglected. It was not until the 

reign of Emperor Shenzong that he finally got the opportunity to carry out the reform aimed to 

strengthen the country’s power. This is the famous “Wang Anshi’s Reform” in the Chinese 

history. 

 

18 

秦腔(Qingqiang Opera)起源于唐、宋年间的陕西农村,经明、清两代的发展,演变成现在

以“直起直落,慷慨激昂,荡气回肠”为主要特征的表现形式。在陕西境内,根据不同语言

特色和生活习惯,秦腔又分为东、中、西、南四路。西安秦腔吸取东、西两路秦腔的长处和

京剧等外来剧种的优点,既有高亢激昂、粗犷豪放的风格,又有柔和清丽、精致细腻的格调。 

Qinqiang Opera originated in the Tang and Song dynasties from the rural areas of the ancient 

Shaanxi in China and took shape in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Now this folk opera is featured 

by melodies that do not have many changes yet sound impassioned and soul-stirring. Since the 

dialects and living habits vary from place to place within Shaanxi province, Qinqiang opera is 

classified into four schools: the eastern school, the central school, the western school and the 

southern school. Qinqiang opera performed in Xi’an has absorbed the merits of the eastern and 

western schools as well as those of other operas such as Peking opera. Thus it sounds loud and 

rough sometimes, soft and gentle at other times. 

 

19 

根据中国的阴阳五行学说,世界上所有的事物都是由金、木、水、火、土五种元素构成,这

五种元素相生相克,白色代表金,绿色代表木,黑色代表水,红色代表火,黄色则代表土。

中国社会发展到汉代以后,黄色开始被人所接受,并认为是最尊贵的颜色。唐代以后,服饰

制度规定只准皇室穿黄色的服饰,其他人一概不允许。 

According to the Chinese thought of yin, yang and the five elements (metal, wood, water, fire and 

earth), all things in the universe consist of the five elements; there is a phenomenon of mutual 

promotion and restraint among the five elements. The white stands for metal, the blue for wood, 

the black for water, the red for fire and the yellow for earth. Since the Han Dynasty in Chinese 

history, the yellow had been accepted by all people and regarded as the most distinguished colour. 

By the Tang Dynasty, the clothing system stipulated that all the people were prohibited from 

wearing yellow clothes except the royal family. 

 

20 

张择端是北宋时期的一位宫廷画师,拥有大量杰出作品,但最著名的应当是被后人称为“神

品”的《清明上河图》(A River Scene at Qingming Festival)。它是一部写实主义的精品,

以当时开封城的景象为题材绘制而成。图中人物多达500余人,真实地再现了当时开封清明

时节的盛况。全图结构完整,描绘准确,被传为稀世珍品。《清明上河图》将那个时代的绘

画艺术推向了顶峰。 

Zhang Zeduan is a royal painter in the Northern Song Dynasty, he left many outstanding works, 

but the most renowned one is A River Scene at Qingming Festival. With various scenes in Kaifeng as raw materials, the painting paints more than 500 people and thus is a lively portrayal of Kaifeng 

on the day of Qingming Festival. So complete in organisation and so vivid in painting, A River 

Scene at Qingming Festival is deemed as the peak of painting at that time. 

 

21 

清朝是中国的最后一个封建王朝。它由满族人(Manchus)建立,是中国历史上第二个由非

汉族人创建的统一王朝。满族人以前也被称为女真(Jurchen),他们居住在明朝境内东北

部、长城关外。在努尔哈赤(Nurhaci)统一女真各部落并建立了一个独立的部落之后,他

们成为了明朝晚期的主要威胁。满族人联合明朝的将军吴三桂打下了北京,并将其作为清朝

的首都。在这之后他们继续南下剿灭(subdue)明朝的残余反抗势力。在满族征战中国的过

程(1618—1683)中,总共造成了2500万人丧生。 

The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China. Founded by the Manchus, it was the 

second non-Han Chinese dynasty that ruled the whole country. The Manchus were formerly 

known as Jurchen, residing in the northeastern part of the Ming territory outside the Great Wall. 

They emerged as the major threat to the late Ming Dynasty after Nurhaci had united all Jurchen 

tribes and established an independent one. The Manchu allied with the Ming Dynasty general Wu 

Sangui to seize Beijing, which was made the capital of the Qing Dynasty, and then proceeded to 

subdue the remaining Ming’s resistance in the south. 

 

22 

明朝是中国历史上最后一个由汉族建立的王朝,历经十二世、十六位皇帝,国祚276年。明

朝初期明太祖朱元璋定都于南京市。1421 年由明成祖朱棣迁都至北京市。明朝是继汉唐盛

世后又一个兴盛的中原王朝,也曾是手工业、经济最繁荣的国家之一。《明史》(The History 

of Ming)认为洪武、永乐在位时期,“治隆唐宋”、“远迈汉唐”。明朝时期,无汉唐之

和亲,无两宋之岁币,天子御国门,君主死社稷,为后世子孙所敬仰。 

The Ming Dynasty is the last dynasty established by the Han Chinese in Chinese history. It had 16 

emperors of 12 generations in its 276 years. Zhu Yuanzhang, founder of the Ming Dynasty, set its 

capital in Nanjing in the early years. Emperor Zhudi moved its capital to Beijing in 1421. The 

Ming Dynasty is a follow-up to the prosperous Han and Tang dynasties, when the handicraft 

industry and economy flourished. The History of Ming suggests that during the reign of Emperor 

Hongwu and Yongle, the Ming Dynasty was much more developed than the Han, the Tang and the 

Song dynasties. The Ming Dynasty was never forced to establish marital relationships with 

neighboring kingdoms like Tang Dynasty, neither did it pay any tribute like the Song did. 

Emperors in the Ming Dynasty all dedicated to its country and are respected by their descendants. 

 

23 

年画(New Year Painting)是中国画的一种,始于古代的门神画(door god painting),在清

朝光绪年间正式被称为年画。北宋年间,每逢过年过节家家户户贴年画已成为一种风尚。木

板年画历史悠久,堪称中国民间艺术宝库中的一颗明珠。木版年画,顾名思义,就是用木板

印出来的年画,不但具有极高的收藏价值,而且还极具观赏性。朱仙镇木板年画和天津杨柳

青、山东潍坊、江苏桃花坞年画并称中国四大年画。朱仙镇木版年画采用的是手工木刻制作,

制作工艺非常地讲究。 

New Year Painting is a kind of Chinese painting originated from ancient door god painting. In the 

period of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty, it was formally known as New Year Painting. In the Northern Song Dynasty, it was a trend to paste new year paintings on New Year festivals and 

other holidays. The wood panel new year painting has a long history. It can be called a pearl of the 

treasures of folk art in China. The wood panel new year paintings, as its name implies, are painted 

with wood panels. They not only have very high artistic value, but also are highly ornamental. 

Wood panel new year paintings in Zhuxian Town, together with new year painting in Yangliuqing 

of Tianjin, Weifang of Shandong and Taohuawu of Jiangsu are collectively known as the four 

famous new year paintings in China. Wood panel new year paintings in Zhuxian Town are made 

of hand-made wood and the production process is very demanding. 

 

24 

在中国古代社会,官服是权力的象征,历来受到统治阶级的重视。因为明朝皇帝姓朱,所以

官员的官服是以大红为主的(紫色从此不在官服中使用),且样式近似唐代圆领服。最有特

色的是用“补子”(buzi)表示官员的品级。补子是一块约 40-50 厘米的正方形丝绸材料,

可织绣上不同的纹样,然后被分别缝缀在官服的胸前和背后。文官的补子用飞禽,武官用走

兽,分成九个等级。平常穿的圆领袍衫则凭衣服长短来区分身份,衣服长的人地位高。 

In ancient China, the official dress was a symbol of power, and was taken seriously by the ruling 

class of ages. In the Ming Dynasty, as the emperor’s family name was Zhu meaning red, the 

official dress was mostly bright red; as a result, the colour purple was no longer used as the colour 

for the official dress during the period. The Ming official dress looked quite similar to the 

round-neck dress in the Tang Dynasty. The “buzi” was the most special characteristic of the Ming 

official dress, which was used to show the grade of officials. The buzi was a piece of square silk 

about 40-50cm, which was embroidered with different flower patterns and then sewn to the front 

part and back part of the official dress. The buzi of the civilian was embroidered with the figure of 

fowls, and that of the military officer was embroidered with the figures of beasts, which was 

divided into nine grades. The ordinary round-neck gowns and robes were distinguished according 

to the length of the dress. The longer the clothes the higher the position. 

 

25 

孙权,字(courtesy name)仲谋,今浙江富阳人。15 岁时就开始征战沙场。他是一位善于

纳贤的英杰,勇敢果断,选拔官员的标准是唯贤任能。他大胆任用了一批年轻有为的将领,

从而帮助孙权成就了一代宏图大业。孙权统治江东 50 年,对开发建业和整个江南地区做出

了重大贡献。他发展农业,兴修水利,疏浚(dredge)和扩大了秦淮河水道。他还发展了航

海事业,派人到夷洲(今台湾省),出使辽东半岛(peninsula)及南海诸国,还为西域僧人

建造了金陵的第一座佛寺——建初寺。 

Sun Quan, whose courtesy name is Zhongmou, was born in Fuyang, Zhejiang Province. Sun 

began to fight on the battlefield when he was only 15 years old. Later, when he became a leader, 

he was brave, decisive and impartial in appointing officials. As a result, a lot of young yet talented 

men were promoted to important position, which helped Sun a lot in building his kingdom. During 

his fifty years’ rule, Sun Quan contributed a lot to the development of Jianye (present Nanjing) 

and the south China as a whole by developing agriculture, building irrigation projects as well as 

dredging and widening the waterway of the Qinhuai River. What’s more, he helped to develop 

China’s navigation industry by sending off convoys to Yizhou (modern Taiwan Province), 

Liaodong Peninsula and some island countries around South China Sea. Under his order, the first Buddhist temple which was named Jianchu Temple was built for monks from the Western 

Regions. 

 

26 

祖冲之,429年生于建康(今南京),他从小就显示出过人的才学。他最伟大的贡献就是把

圆周率的数值精确计算到3.141,592,6 和 3.141,592,7之间。这个数值在当时是世界上最精准

的圆周率数值。直到大约一千年后,欧洲数学家才求得同样的结果。由于祖冲之在计算圆周

率方面的重大贡献,圆周率又被称为“祖率”。国际科学界还将月球上的一座环形山(lunar 

crater)命名为“祖冲之山”(Tsu Chung-chi)。国际行星中心还以他的名字命名了一颗小

行星(asteroid)。这些都是为了纪念这位伟大的科学巨匠。 

Born in Jiankang (present Nanjing) in 429, Zu Chongzhi (Tsu Chung-chi) displayed unusual talent 

from his childhood. Based on others’ achievements, he calculated out that the precise value of π 

shall be between 3.141,592,6 and 3.141,592,7. This was the most precise approximation at that 

time and it was not until one thousand years later that a European mathematician came up with the 

same result. For all his great contribution, π is also called the Zu ratio in honor of Zu Chongzhi. 

What’s more, the international scientific circle named one lunar crater as “Tsu Chung-chi”. And 

the International Planet Centre named one asteroid after his name. All these efforts are done to 

commemorate this great scientist. 

 

27 

编钟(Bianzhong)是中国传统的乐器,由青铜铸成,它由不同的钟依照大小排列。这些钟

悬挂在一个巨大的木制钟架上。这些编钟曾被用作和弦乐器(polyphonic musical 

instruments),其中一些钟的历史可以追溯到 2,000 到 3,000 年前。迄今为止最重要的一套

编钟在挖掘曾侯乙(Marquis Yi)的古墓时出土,它由 65 个大小编钟组成,保存完好。曾

侯乙编钟铸造于两千五百多年前的战国时代(Warring States),制作精美,总重量达到两千

五百多公斤,今天它仍然能够演奏乐曲,在这世界文化史上也是极为罕见的。 

Bianzhong is an ancient Chinese musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells which are 

placed by size and hung in an enormous wooden frame. These sets of chime bells were used as 

polyphonic musical instruments and some of these bells can be dated back to 2,000 to 3,000 years 

ago. Among the most important sets of Bianzhong discovered are a complete ceremonial set of 65 

zhong bells, found in a near-perfect state of preservation during the excavation of the tomb of 

Marquis Yi of Zeng. Made in the Warring States about 2,500 years ago, the bells of Marquis Yi of 

Zeng which feature exquisite workmanship and have a total weight of over 2,500 kilograms can 

still be played today, which is rare even in the history of world culture. 

 

28 

在英文中,“中国”与“瓷器”是一个词,这说明,很早的时期欧洲人就把中国与瓷器联系

在一起的了。瓷器 15 世纪时就传入欧洲,在中外交流中占有重要位置。德国卡塞尔郎德

(Keisel Randy)博物馆至今还藏有一件中国明代青瓷(blue-and-white)碗。历史上,中国

和亚洲的其他国家以及欧洲国家的瓷器交易极为频繁,而且数量巨大。据今人研究,在

1602-1682 年间,仅荷兰东印度公司(the Dutch East India Company)从中国贩运到欧洲的瓷

器就有一千六百多万件。瓷器以其优雅精致的品质,为中国赢得了好名声。 

In English, china has the same meaning as porcelain. This proves that Europeans have long known 

of China’s relation to porcelain. Porcelain found its way to Europe in the 15th century, occupying an important position in the exchanges between China and other countries. The Keisel Randy 

Museum in Germany houses a blue-and-white bowl dating back to the Ming Dynasty. Throughout 

history, China, along with other Asian countries, and Europe maintained a busy and vast trade in 

porcelain. From 1602 to 1682, the Dutch East India Company alone transported more than 16 

million articles of porcelain from China to Europe. Porcelain earned a good reputation for China 

for its sophistication and elegance. 

 

29 

中国人为什么要修长城?在秦始皇时代,每二十个人中,就有一个人参与修建过长城。中国

人经历了无数次毁灭性的战争,他们深知,保护生灵的城墙总比掩埋尸体的壕沟(trench)

好。修建长城有说不尽的艰辛,甚至不少人还因此付出了生命。但与惨烈的战争相比,人们

更愿意选择前者。长城在中国历史上发挥的作用是巨大的。在冷兵器时代,长城在军事防御

上起到了不容置疑的作用,尤其在防御北方民族所谓的“马背上的进攻”方面,效果是明显

的。 

Why did the Chinese build the Great Wall? During the reign of the First Emperor of Qin, one out 

of every 20 people took part in the project. Suffering from the devastating damage of wars, people 

realized that building a wall to protect lives was better than burying the dead in trenches. Building 

walls was extremely hard labor, sometimes even at the cost of life itself. Compared with bloody 

wars, however, people would rather choose the former. The Great Wall played a significant role in 

history. It certainly served the purpose of military defense in the age of cold steel, especially in 

preventing attacks from northern peoples on horseback. 

 

30 

围棋(go)于四千多年前起源于中国,是一种重要的棋盘游戏,并在一千多年前就先后传到

朝鲜半岛(peninsula)和日本,为东北亚人们普遍喜爱。每年中、日、韩之间有多种围棋比

赛,围棋成为文化交流的工具。围棋不仅是竞赛项目,也是一种游戏活动,文人(literati)

的案台上常常备有围棋。客人来了,除了有酒,还有围棋。旧时,无论在农村还是在市井,

人们常常可以见到这样的场面:两个人在对弈,旁边站着一大片观棋的人,观棋的人得到的

快乐丝毫不比下棋的人少。 

Go is an important board game with origins in China from more than 4,000 years ago. It was 

introduced to the Korean peninsula and Japan over 1,000 years ago, and has since become a 

favorite pastime of many people there. Today, go still serves as a means of cultural exchange 

between the peoples of China, Japan and Korea, as they engage in numerous tournaments every 

year. Go is not only a competitive event but also a game of entertainment. The literati would 

usually have a set of go pieces on their desks. When a friend came around, both the host and the 

guest would enjoy a game of go, along with fine wine. In ancient countryside and towns, a pair of 

go players in an open space would often attract an attentive crowd, with the onlookers enjoying 

the game no less than the players. 

 

31 

在中国,小孩子的抓周(one-year-old catch)仪式独具风格,在孩子的成长过程中,这个仪

式具有里程碑式的重要意义。抓周仪式在小孩满一周岁的时候举行,最早记载于北齐。小孩

子满周岁的那天,在吃中午的长寿面之前,家里的长辈们会将书、笔、钱币、首饰、玩具和

食物等摆出来,由大人将小孩抱过来,令其端坐,大人们不给予任何的引导或暗示,任孩子任意挑选,并以此为依据来预测孩子可能存在的志趣和将要从事的职业以及发展,也寄寓了

长辈们对孩子的美好期待。 

In China, the one-year-old catch of a baby is of unique characteristic. The ceremony is of 

milestone-like significance in the growing process of a baby. The ceremony usually celebrates 

when the baby is one year old. The earliest historical record about one-year-old catch appeared 

during the Northern Qi Dynasty. On the day when a baby is one year old, the family of the baby 

will lay out books, pens, coins, jewelries, toys and foods, etc. The parents then put the baby in 

front of these articles and make him/her sit up. Nobody will give any instruction or cue to the baby 

so that it is left free to choose by himself/herself. According to the articles the baby catches, the 

family try to make predications about the baby’s potential interests, future career and development. 

The ceremony also represents that the elder place good wishes and hope on the baby. 

 

32 

武则天是中国历史上空前绝后的唯一一位女皇帝,她创造了中国历史的奇迹。她是中国历史

上杰出的政治家、军事家,同时也是一位诗人。武则天出生于唐朝的大户人家,她拥有盖世

的美丽和绝顶的聪明,并喜欢读书。童年时曾随父母游历了名山大川,这培养了她的眼界和

才干。她 14 岁入宫,在经历了很多坎坷和磨难之后,终于当上了皇后。690 年,武则天改

国号(the title of the dynasty)唐为周,正式做了皇帝。她执政期间,经济、文化繁荣发展,

边疆稳固,人民生活幸福。 

Wu Zetian, the only female emperor in Chinese history, created the miracle of Chinese history. 

She was an outstanding politician, strategist as well as a poet in Chinese history. Born in a wealthy 

family in Tang Dynasty, she was the most beautiful and intelligent of her time, and she also liked 

reading. She had visited famous mountains and great rivers with her parents when she was a child, 

which had broadened her horizon and developed her talents. She was sent to the palace when she 

was 14. After many difficulties and hardships, she became the empress finally. In 690, Wu Zetian 

changed the title of the dynasty Tang to Zhou, and became the emperor herself. During her reign, 

the economy and culture developed rapidly, the frontier got stable and people led a happy life. 

 

33 

玉雕(jade carving)是中国最古老的雕刻品种之一。玉石历来被人们当作珍宝,在中国古代,

玉被看作是美好品质和君子风范的象征。玉石加工雕琢成为精美的工艺品,称为玉雕。工艺

师在制作的过程中,根据不同玉料的天然颜色和自然形状,经过精心设计、反复琢磨,才能

把玉石雕制成精美的工艺品。玉雕的品种主要有人物、器具、鸟兽、花卉等大件作品,也有

别针(brooch)、戒指、印章等小件作品。中国的玉雕作品在世界上享有很好的声誉。 

Jade carving is one of the oldest carving arts in China. Jade was always treated as treasure. In 

ancient China, jade was regarded as a symbol of refinement and moral ethics. Jade carving refers 

to the process to carve a piece of jade into a fine article of art. A carving artist has to thoroughly 

examine a piece of jade, cudgel his brains to make a design according to its natural colors and 

shape, and turn it into an artistic work. Jade can be carved into human figures, containers, images 

of birds, animals, flowers as well as small things like brooches, rings or seals. Chinese jade 

carving works enjoy a high reputation in the world. 

 

 

 34 

生活在中国黄河中上游的黄土高原上(the Loess Plateau)的人们,利用那里的黄土层建造了

一种独特的住宅——窑洞(cave-dwellings)。窑洞分为土窑、石窑、砖窑等几种。土窑是

靠着山坡挖掘成的黄土窑洞,这种窑洞冬暖夏凉,保温和隔音效果最好。石窑和砖窑是先用

石块或砖砌成拱形洞,然后在上面盖上厚厚的黄土,既坚固又美观。由于建造窑洞不需要钢

材和水泥,所以窑洞的造价较低。随着社会的发展,人们对窑洞的建造不断改进,黄土高原

上冬暖夏凉的窑洞越来越舒适美观了。 

People living in the Loess Plateau which lies in the middle and upper reaches of the Yellow River 

make use of the solid to build unique residences called cave-dwellings. These can be further 

divided into earthen, rock-walled and brick-walled types. Earthen cave-dwellings are hollowed out 

of mountain slopes; they are warm in winter and cool in summer, and are also sound-proof. Stones 

or brick-walled cave-dwellings are usually built with stones or bricks first into arch-shaped house 

and then covered with a thick layer of earth. Since there is no need for steel and cement, the 

building cost is low. As society progresses, construction of carve-dwelling keeps improving, and 

today, such houses are more comfortable inside and more pleasant in appearance. 

 

35 

轿子(sedan chair)是中国古代很重要的交通工具,主要由人来肩扛手抬。汉代的权贵(bigwig)

们坐在由人像背包那样背着的轻便竹椅中行进。在北魏和南北朝时期,山水卷轴中出现了绑

在竹竿上的木制轿子。轿子在种类上有官轿、民轿和喜轿等。轿子最重要的用途可能就是用

作喜轿了。传统的中国婚礼上,新娘子被雇来的人用轿子抬到婚礼现场。喜轿装饰华丽、喜

庆(jubilant),通常这些轿子还装饰有一个由红色丝绸制成的帘子,用来防止新娘子的闺

容被旁观者看见。 

The sedan chair can be regarded as a crucial vehicle of ancient China. It mainly has the virtue of 

lifting with shoulders and hands. In Han Dynasty, the bigwigs travelled in light bamboo seats 

supported on a carrier’s back like a backpack. In the Northern Wei Dynasty and the North and 

South Song dynasties, wooden carriages on bamboo poles appeared in painted landscape scrolls. 

As for its kind, the sedan chair can be classified into three types: sedan chair for officials, the 

civilian and weddings. The chair with perhaps the greatest importance was the bridal chair. A 

traditional bride is carried to her wedding ceremony by a “shoulder carriage”, usually hired. These 

were richly ornamented and jubilant, and were equipped with red silk curtains to screen the bride 

from onlookers. 

 

36 

龙袍(imperial robe),从字面上理解就是绣(embroider)有龙形花纹的袍服,在中国古代

服饰文化史上占有重要地位。龙纹最早出现在周朝,当时出现画有龙纹的服装,但没有出现

真正意义上的龙袍。秦汉时期,上下相连的袍服出现,但袍服上仍没有龙形的花纹。直到隋

唐时期冕服上才开始出现龙纹,但是帝王平时穿用的常服上并没有龙纹。只有到了元明时期,

帝王袍服上绣有龙纹的现象才越来越多,自此也就出现了真正意义的龙袍。 

Imperial robe literally means a robe that is embroidered with images of Chinese dragon, which 

played an important role in the history of Chinese ancient dress culture. The design of Chinese 

dragon appeared as early as in the Zhou Dynasty but the real imperial robe had not yet existed. By 

the Qin and Han dynasties, the robe with upper and lower parts as a whole was designed, but still 

no flower pattern of Chinese dragon on the robe. By the Sui and Tang Dynasties, the crown clothing that consisted of both upper clothes and lower skirt began to have the flower pattern of 

Chinese dragon. However, the ordinary dress worn by the emperor wasn’t embroidered with the 

flower pattern of Chinese dragon. Only by the Yuan and Ming Dynasties, imperial robe 

embroidered with the flower pattern of Chinese dragon began to become more common and the 

real imperial robe came into being. 

 

37 

西安作为十二朝古都,见证了历史的荣辱兴衰。历史在这里留下的文物景观和遗址不胜枚举,

如兵马俑(Terracotta Warriors and Horses)、大雁塔(the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda)、华清

池等都是人类文化艺术的瑰宝。大雁塔位于西安南郊,建于唐代,是唐朝太子李治为了追念

他的母亲文德皇后而建立的,至今已经有 1000 多年的历史。大雁塔塔身由青砖砌成,结构

坚固,外观简单又不失庄严,最初建立的时候只有5 层,后来又经过多次重修,现在的塔是

7层,高达64米。 

As the capital of twelve dynasties, Xi’an had witnessed the rise and fall of history. There are 

numerous cultural relics and historical sites throughout the history. Among them are Terracotta 

Warriors and Horses, the Giant Wild Goose Pagoda and the Huaqing Pool, which are all precious 

treasures of humankind’s culture and art. Located in the south suburbs of Xi’an, the Giant Wild 

Pagoda was built by Li Zhi, a prince of the Tang Dynasty in memory of his mother Empress 

Wende and has stood there ever since for more than one thousand years. Simple yet solemn, the 

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda is of a firm structure built of grey brick. Originally built with only 5 

stories, the Pagoda now measures 64 metres high with additional two stories after several repairs. 

 

38 

中国人有在清明节扫墓祭祖和踏青插柳的习俗。每到清明节,家家户户都要到郊外去祭扫祖

先的坟墓。人们为坟墓除去杂草,添加新土,在坟前点上香(incense),摆上食物和纸钱,

表示对祖先的思念和敬意。清明时节,树木发芽,到处一片新绿,呈现出生机盎然的景色。

人们会到郊外呼吸新鲜空气,观赏蓝天、绿树、小草和鲜花,或者折根柳枝在戴在头上,叫

做“插柳”。据说,插柳可以驱除鬼怪和灾难,祈求平安幸福。 

The Chinese people have the custom of sweeping the tombs, taking an outing and wearing a 

willow twig on the head on the Tomb-sweeping Day. When the Tomb-sweeping Day comes, 

every family will go to the country side to hold a memorial ceremony at their ancestors’ tombs. 

People get rid of any weeds growing around the tomb, add new earth, burn incense and offer food 

and spirit money to show their remembrance and respect for their ancestors. At this time, the grass 

and trees have put forth new buds, with fresh green everywhere, which reflects the vitality of 

spring. It is a good time for people to breathe the fresh air in the countryside and appreciate the 

blue sky, green trees, grass and flowers. People like to wear a willow twig on the head because it 

is supposed to be able to drive away ghosts and disasters and bring safety and happiness. 

 

39 

618 年 6 月 18 日,唐朝由高祖建立,是中国文明的黄金时代,在艺术,文学,尤其是在诗

歌和科技上发展显著。佛教成为普通百姓的主要宗教。长安(今西安)是唐朝的首都,是当

时世界上最大的城市。第二任皇帝太宗发动了军事行动来化解游牧(nomadic)部族的威胁,

扩展边界,使邻国服从朝贡(tributary)制度。唐朝在塔里木盆地(Tarim Basin)军事上的胜利保持了丝绸之路畅通,连接长安到中亚地区,并远至西部。在南方,利润丰厚的海上

(maritime)贸易路线从港口城市开始,如广州。 

Tang Dynasty was founded by Emperor Gaozu on 18 June 618. It was a golden age of Chinese 

civilization with significant developments in art, literature, particularly poetry, and technology. 

Buddhism became the predominant religion for common people. Chang’an (modern Xi’an), the 

national capital, was the largest city in the world of its time. The second emperor, Taizong, 

launched military campaigns to dissolve threats from nomadic tribes, extended the border, and 

submitted neighboring states into a tributary system. Military victories in the Tarim Basin kept the 

Silk Road open, connecting Chang’an to Central Asia and areas far to the west. In the south, 

profitable maritime trade routes began from port cities such as Guangzhou. 

 

40 

中华民族是龙的传人,而实际上根本没有龙这种动物存在,它只是人们臆想出来的一种动物

象征 ,结合了许多种其他不同动物的特征,包括:鹿、鱼、老虎、狮子、马、牛、驴、蛇、

和秃鹰(vulture)。龙被人们看作是一种具有神性的动物,时常与云朵、雷电和降雨联系在

一起,它可以在陆地行走,在海里游泳,在天空翱翔,化作风神和雨神。中国人不仅认为龙

是一种福神(mascot),还是权力、尊严、运气、力量和成功的化身。 

The Chinese people consider themselves descendents of the dragon, which is in fact a fictitious 

animal combining some features of the deer, fish, tiger, lion, horse, ox, donkey, snake and vulture. 

This divine animal is always associated with clouds, thunderbolts and rainfall. It can walk on the 

land, swim in the sea and fly in the air and is the deity of wind and rain. Chinese people believe it 

is a mascot, as well as the embodiment of power, dignity, luck, strength and success. 

 


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